と to. English and, or, with, as soon as, when, if

9 December 2018 by wolfganghofmeier

Level: A1
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It is complicated, unfortunately, has be translated with many different English words, depending on context. Sometimes it has a grammatical function and can’t be translated as an English word at all.

 

1) Apples and oranges are fruits. .. Ringo to orenji wa kudamono desu. .. りんごオレンジは果物です。

 

2) Which is healthier, ramen or soba? .. Rāmen to soba de wa dochira ga kenkō ni ī desu ka. .. ラーメン蕎麦ではどちらが健康にいいですか。

 

3) I saw Midori with Genzo. .. Ganzo to Midori o mimashita. .. ガンゾミドリを見ました。

 

4) Former adventurer Bergriff who was attacked by a monster on a young age and lost one foot picked up the girl who was abandoned in the nearby forest while living peacefully day by day with the villagers returning to his hometown and as his own daughter "Angelin" I will raise it by men alone.

 

Wakaki hi ni majū ni osowa re kataashi o ushinatta moto bōken-sha berugurifu wa, furusato e to modori sonmin to hibi heion ni kurasu Chū, chikaku no mori de sute rarete ita on'nanoko o hiroi, jibun no musume “anjerin” to shite otokode hitori de sodateageru.

 

若き日に魔獣に襲われ片足を失った元冒険者ベルグリフは、故郷へ戻り村民日々平穏に暮らす中、近くの森で捨てられていた女の子を拾い、自分の娘“アンジェリン”として男手一人で育て上げる。

 

No need to analyze this monster sentence word for word. The first occurrence of translates as with, the second occurrence of translates as while. They occur in the reverse order in the English translation.

 

5) "Official site with me and Shippo and Kagurazaka".

 

“Boku to shippo to Kagurazaka” kōshiki saito.

 

『僕シッポ神楽坂』公式サイト。

 

Here is used to join three words.

 

6) A heartwarming story that a young veterinarian plays with animals and owners on stage in Kagurazaka, Tokyo.

 

Tōkyō Kagurazaka o butai ni wakaki jūi-shi ga dōbutsu ya kainushi-tachi to kurihirogeru kokoroatatamaru monogatari.

 

東京・神楽坂を舞台に若き獣医師が動物や飼い主たち繰り広げる心温まる物語.

 

As is often the case, English and Japanese word order are very different. In English, Tokyo is the last word, in Japanese it is the first word. “A heartwarming story” is at the beginning of the English sentence, the translation “kokoroatatamaru monogatari” is at the end in Japanese.

 

7) Diabetes caused by insulin secretion failure and insulin resistance

 

Insurin bunpitsu fuzen to insurin teikō-sei ni yoru tōnyō-byō desu

 

インスリン分泌不全インスリン抵抗性による糖尿病です

 

Literally: insulin secretion failure and insulin resistance at according to diabetes it is

 

8) I think I will go to school tomorrow. .. Ashita wa gakkō ni iku to omoimasu. .. 明日は学校に行く思います。

 

Literally: tomorrow ‘wa’ school to go ‘to’ think. to serves a grammatical purpose here and can’t be translated into English literally.

 

The following website has many more such examples with excellent explanations:

http://www.punipunijapan.com/japanese-particle-to/

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